Thursday, June 13, 2019

Freight Stops: Waterman Switch

For almost an eternity, nothing had disquieted the dark wilderness at the top of the San Lorenzo Valley. Native Americans rarely if ever ventured so far, while Spanish and Mexican explorers and settlers took easier routes into the valley, far from the San Lorenzo River's headwaters. In this high mountain glen, some of the last of the valley's giants soared, perhaps not as high as their older cousins further to the south at Big Trees or up Big Basin, but these giants reigned undisturbed. That is, until Buckskin moved in.

James "Buckskin" Lawrence was the first and only resident of the area, having settled there in 1868. Buckskin knew the value of his land—the San Lorenzo Valley Flume & Transportation Company had briefly considered his property as the start of the flume until additional surveys convinced the company to establish the flume further to the south. Nonetheless, Buckskin eagerly capitalized on the interest by founding Rocky Ridge in 1875. Despite acquiring a post office in that same year, the settlement never materialized and the post office closed two years later. A school related to the community, founded in 1876, did survive for nearly a decade and supporting all of the children living north of King's Creek, but it too ultimately failed. Buckskin still lived on the property when the Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company extended its Dougherty Extension Railroad 1.5 miles north from McGaffigan Switch and directly across the homesteader's parcel.

The lumber company had only moved to its mill north of Boulder Creek in 1888, and despite promises that decades worth of redwood timber were available along either bank of the San Lorenzo River north of the mill, timber crews proved the truth of the matter: the valley was running out of viable old growth redwood trees fast! With the trackage moved to Buckskin's property, the company established a logging camp at the site. At the time, it likely had no name and may have been considered a temporary loading area, exploiting the large meadow that spread out in front of Buckskin's front door.  But for the next seven years, lumber crews continued to operate from the site, which functioned as a loading zone for logs that were hauled down the hills by oxen and donkey teams. Additional logs passed through the area on flatcars that came from the end-of-track 0.5 miles further up the river. At least one spur or siding and possibly more were installed at the camp to allow these flatcars to pass without impeding operations. The site operated until early 1900 when the company determined that all viable timber in the upper San Lorenzo Valley had been cut.

For the next two years, the struggling company considered ways that it could access its timber resources at the headwaters of Pescadero Creek, a short distance from this logging camp but almost entirely uphill and in an adjacent valley. The company had purchased prime timberland along there from the Davis & Cowell lime company in the late 1880s. Davis & Cowell, in turn, had acquired it from Frederick H. Waterman, who had purchased the land in the 1870s, but never actually used it for anything. Now the Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company wanted to try and do something with it, but accessing the tract was nearly impossible. They finally decided in 1902 to attempt to use a skid road that worked in tandem with a cable winch to control the descent of logs down from Waterman Gap. A steam donkey was installed at the logging camp at the bottom of the ridge, and it was at this time that the site finally became known as Waterman Switch, since it was where logs arriving from Waterman Creek were transferred to waiting flatcars for processing. The operation proved too costly and the company finally went bust in early 1903, prematurely ending the operations along the ridge.

Lumbermen posing for the camera near the mill on Waterman Creek, 1905. [Derek R. Whaley]
In February 1903, the disparate lumber companies of the San Lorenzo Valley consolidated to form a new collective: the California Timber Company. This new firm had several goals, but their primary function was to more effectively harvest the timber on Waterman Creek. While one crew cut a new road to the mill from Waterman Switch, another worked to transfer the machinery of an old mill from Bear Creek to Waterman Creek. Within a few months, the mill was ready to cut timber into lumber. A large logging camp arose at Waterman Gap alongside the millpond. The mill itself achieved a capacity of 60,000 board feet of lumber per day via its 125 workers. After cutting the timber, lumber was carted down the wagon road to Waterman Switch, where it was loaded onto flatcars and taken to Boulder Creek for transfer to Southern Pacific Railroad trains.

The California Timber Company Mill along Waterman Creek, c. 1910. [Santa Cruz Museum & Art & History]
The mill at Waterman Gap continued to operate for a decade, enduring the 1906 Earthquake and establishing a record for most timber cut in the San Lorenzo River in one day at 109,441 board feet. Waterman Creek and the other tributaries of Pescadero Creek owned by the lumber company were finally logged out in 1913, at which point the California Timber Company moved onto other ventures. The tracks to Waterman Switch remained in place for several more years, eventually being scrapped in 1917. In 1924, Santa Cruz County annexed the logging road and eventually upgraded it during the Great Depression to support automotive traffic. It became the northernmost portion of State Route 9 within Santa Cruz County soon after the end of World War II. In 1947, the county briefly considered converting the area around Waterman Switch into a reservoir to supply Santa Cruz with water, but the Newell Creek watershed was ultimately chosen instead leading to the creation of Loch Lomond. The state eventually purchased the area of Waterman Switch in 2004 to create a trail link between Big Basin Redwoods State Park and Castle Rock State Park via the old Saratoga Toll Road, which also passes through the area.

Location of Waterman Switch. [Google Maps]
Geo-Coordinates & Access Rights:
37.2078N, 122.1434W

The site of Waterman Switch is legally accessible to the public. It can be visited along the Saratoga Toll Road near the southern end of Castle Rock State Park. The toll road is marked by a train-shaped mailbox and a gated road. Unfortunately, parking is at a premium in this area and the sharp turn of the old wagon road creates a dangerous area for pedestrians. Once beyond the gate, continue for 1/8-mile down the old toll road. At the site of Waterman Switch is a kiosk that has some out-of-date information printed on it. The Dougherty Extension Railroad right-of-way through this area is still visible, especially when heading south from beside the train-shaped mailbox. Any relics of the Waterman Switch operation itself are no longer visible except for the right-of-way. Along Waterman Creek, it is unknown whether any remnants of the mill remain, though an extant log dam continues to block the stream according to the "Pescadero-Butano Watershed Assessment: Final Report" of March 5, 2004, although this may likely be from later activities along the creek.

Citations & Credits:
  • Clark, Donald Thomas. Santa Cruz County Place Names: A Geographic Dictionary. Second edition. Scotts Valley, CA: Kestrel Press, 2008.
  • Hamman, Rick. California Central Coast Railways. Second edition. Santa Cruz: Otter B Books, 2002.
  • Whaley, Derek R. Santa Cruz Trains: Railroads of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Santa Cruz, CA, 2015.

Friday, June 7, 2019

Freight Stops: McGaffigan Switch

The Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company would not have found the success it did without the careful supervision of Patrick J. McGaffigan, who served as superintendent the company's operations north of Boulder Creek for a decade. McGaffigan, in addition to his skills as a manager, also became a relative of the Dougherty family through his daughter, Angeline B. McGaffigan, who married William James Dougherty, Jr., in 1897. As superintendent, McGaffigan was constantly on the move with timber crews, overseeing the cutting of specific groves and the loading of timber onto rolling stock for transport for the mill. As the tracks wound up the San Lorenzo Valley past the mill beginning in 1890, McGaffigan found it inconvenient to live so far from the site of the logging activities.

He settled on a site 1.5 miles to the north of the mill that sat on a small hill that overlooked the Dougherty Extension Railroad tracks. Due to the heavy logging in the area, McGaffigan's home could probably look all the way south to the mill and quite a distance to the north, allowing him a good view of the activities over which he superintended. Although there are no surviving photographs of his home, descriptions of it suggest an elaborate and expansive Victorian-style house easily visible to anybody in the area. The fame of the home as a waypoint along the railroad and the likely presence of a short spur below the home gave the location the name McGaffigan Switch.

The site, though, probably served a dual purpose, at least initially. When the track was first extended in 1890, it may have terminated at or near the site of McGaffigan Switch and served as the Dougherty mill's first logging camp. There is certainly enough space for such a camp at the site, which today is a narrow meadow along the west bank of the San Lorenzo River. The next location that could have functioned as a logging camp is Waterman Switch, which was not established for several more years, giving further credence to the idea that a logging camp was here. As with many logging camps, especially along railroad lines, the camp probably hosted a small shingle mill to process timber that was either too small to cut into lumber or had broken during felling. This would provide an explanation for the current name of the road through the area: McGaffigan Mill Road.

Direct logging operations at McGaffigan Switch were fairly short-lived. Logging crews relocated their primary logging camp to Waterman Switch around 1897 and probably moved the shingle mill to the new camp at this time. While it is unclear whether McGaffigan continued as superintendent after 1897, both he and his son, James, remained at the home for several more years.  The fate of the property after they left is unclear, but it seems to have been demolished by the time the San Lorenzo Park subdivision was established in 1932. The railroad tracks were removed no later than 1917, although they went out of use around 1914 when the California Timber Company ceased operations above Waterman Switch. Patrick McGaffigan died in 1917 at his home in San Francisco.

A rusting narrow-gauge rail sitting behind a property along the former right-of-way at McGaffigan Switch, 2013.
[Derek R. Whaley]
The site developed into San Lorenzo Park, a small subdivision laid out by R. J. Dillon in 1932. It consisted of small private cottages, a service station, a general store, and a swimming hole. Unfortunately, Dillon failed to file proper paperwork and the subdivision reverted to Isaiah Hartman, who subsequently transferred the property to the Wood Brothers. The Woods developed the park and sold lands, but the subdivision never thrived, partially due to the economic conditions of the Great Depression and partially due to the remoteness of the locale.

Geo-Coordinates & Access Rights:
37.1955N, 122.1466W

The site of McGaffigan's Switch is easy to find. It is located along McGaffigan Mill Road along State Route 9 roughly 5.5 miles north of Boulder Creek on the west side of the road. Notably, it is the last road before drivers enter Castle Rock State Park. Few relics of the railroad or mill survive. Along the former right-of-way, which is only accessible from behind a home, a few rails still sit stacked alongside a shallow cut. Otherwise, the road itself sits atop the railroad route, burying any remnants. The precise location of the shingle mill is unknown. While the road is public, the homes remain private properties and trespassing is not advised.

Citations & Credits:
  • Clark, Donald Thomas. Santa Cruz County Place Names: A Geographic Dictionary. Scotts Valley, CA: Kestrel Press, 2008.
  • Hamman, Rick. California Central Coast Railroads. Santa Cruz: Otter B Books, 2002.
  • McCarthy, Nancy F. When Grizzlies Roamed the Canyons. Palo Alto, CA: Garden Court Press, 1994.
  • Robinson, Lisa A. Images of America: The San Lorenzo Valley. Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2012.
  • Whaley, Derek R. Santa Cruz Trains: Railroads of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Santa Cruz, CA, 2015.

Friday, May 31, 2019

Freight Stops: Chase Lumber Company Mill on Feeder Creek

A mile beyond the Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company mill on the San Lorenzo River and five miles north of Boulder Creek, James B. Sinnott owned a homestead. When he first moved there in the mid-1880s, he probably cut down the redwood groves and sent them downriver either on the flume or on skid roads to Boulder Creek for processing into lumber. Afterwards, he established "Sky Ranch," upon which he likely raised some cattle and horses. Very little is known of the Sinnott family of Sky Ranch, but members of it remained there into the 1920s. The property itself was leased in the late 1880s to the business partners Peery & Steen to harvest lumber.

In 1889, when the Dougherty Extension Railroad was lengthened for the first time beyond Doughertys, the route encountered Sinnott's ranch. An agreement between the lumber company and Sinnott was struck allowing the railroad tracks to pass through a corner the property. The next year, the Chase Lumber Company purchased a tract of timber northwest of Sky Ranch and decided that the most feasible way to get the timber to market was to build a spur off the Dougherty Extension Railroad to the mill. The Sinnott family was once again asked to grant a right-of-way through their land and, once they allowed this, Sinnott Switch became an informal stop along the rail line marking where the Chase mill spur broke off from the main extension railroad line. There is no evidence that the Sinnotts ever used the railroad at their mill, but several members of the family were active in local lumber operations so it is possible that they used the track to get to Doughertys and Boulder Creek, possibly through an arrangement with the Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company.

The Chase Mill on Feeder Creek around 1895, showing the main structure in the back, a tramway at right, and the spur tracks somewhat obscured at left with a lumber car parked in the background. [Santa Cruz Museum of Art & History]
The Chase Lumber Company was a local firm run by Stephen H. Chase, who had been active in the area for longer than the Dougherty brothers. He began with a small lumber mill near the Summit in 1863, the first operation in the Santa Cruz Mountains to haul its lumber to San José. The success of the venture prompted Chase to expand operations and build a planing mill in San José. One of his new mills was erected on Boulder Creek in 1884, which gave him a better idea of the San Lorenzo Valley logging industry as a whole. He initially used Bear Creek Road to ship his lumber, but switched to using the Felton & Pescadero Railroad when it was completed in 1885. The next year, he founded S. H. Chase & Company and, in 1889, he bought space in Santa Cruz for a lumber yard, thereby entering the competitive Santa Cruz market against Frederick A. Hihn, the Grovers, the Loma Prieta Lumber Company, and Cunningham & Company. To support this increased business, Chase purchased from Cunningham & Company several parcels near the headwaters of Feeder Creek five miles north of Boulder Creek.

Google Map showing the rough route of the Chase Mill Spur, with
Sinnott's Switch at bottom and the Chase Mill at top. [Google Maps]
In 1891, Chase reincorporated as the Chase Lumber Company and began construction of the mill alongside the installation of a one-mile-long spur along the south bank of Feeder Creek from Sinnott Switch. Like the line it connected to, the spur was narrow-gauge and crudely made, but it did require a bridge across the San Lorenzo River, which may have been an impressive structure since the river cuts a broad and deep gulch in this section. The mill opened at the beginning of the 1892 season but shut down shortly afterwards due to a poor economic climate. In late autumn of the same year, much of the railroad trackage was destroyed in a landslide, forcing Chase to invest more in a mill that had yet to turn a profit. He decided to close the mill on Boulder Creek and turn all of his focus on the Feeder Creek mill. But profits would never come.

In 1893, a lumber racket emerged in the Bay Area which encouraged price fixing. Chase refused to join and the Southern Pacific Railroad, which was invested in the scheme, retaliated by increasing Chase's freight costs at Boulder Creek. Chase fought the racket and eventually settled out of court. In the meantime, his mill finally began to make money in the mid-1890s. At peak capacity, the mill processed 25,000 board feet of lumber per day, which amounted to five carloads. The company continued to operate along Feeder Creek until around 1899, eventually relocating its operations to a tract along Laguna Creek near Davenport, followed by a small tract along Smith Grade in Bonny Doon. In 1905, Chase sold his lumber yard in Santa Cruz to the California Timber Company and left the county permanently.

Chase died in 1915 but his son, J. A. Chase, continued to run the corporation for several more decades, albeit with a shifted focus on Northern California. The firm probably shut down in the late 1950s. The former trackage to Feeder Creek was seriously considered by Southern Pacific as a viable route to the Pescadero Creek basin until the San Francisco Earthquake in 1906 forced it to abandon all plans for future expansion in Santa Cruz County and its environs. The tracks to the mill were probably pulled around 1900 but may have lingered along with the rest of the Dougherty Extension Railroad until 1917.

Geo-Coordinates & Access Rights:
37.1918N, 122.1525W

Almost nothing of the Chase Company mill or the spur to get to the mill survives today. The area through which the spur passed has remained uninhabited, a forgotten path on the south bank of Feeder Creek just south of Fern Drive north of Boulder Creek. Only a few cross-ties remaining visible, with most either buried or rotted away. A single piece of track stuck in a tree near the bottom of the grade is the only strong evidence remaining of the spur. The mill property is still a large block of land spanning almost all of the Feeder Creek basin and is rated for industrial use, though it is not currently being utilized for such. The junction of Feeder Creek with a smaller creek marks the rough site of the mill and some abandoned timber used in the construction of the mill still sits in disorderly piles around the site. Curiously, Google Maps records the address of the mill as 480 Chase Mill Road, despite the fact that no such road actually appears on any map. Clearly the legacy of Chase mill lives on.

Citations & Credits: 
  • Hamman, Rick. California Central Coast Railways. Second edition. Santa Cruz: Otter B Books, 2002.
  • "Nicholas Paul Sinnott", Monterey County: Biographies.
  • Payne, Stephen Michael. "Felling the Giants", Santa Cruz Public Libraries. (From Stephen Michael Payne, A Howling Wilderness: A History of the Summit Road Area of the Santa Cruz Mountains 1850-1906, Santa Cruz: Loma Prieta Publishing, 1978).
  • Whaley, Derek R. Santa Cruz Trains: Railroads of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Santa Cruz, CA, 2015.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Freight Stops: Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company Mill

The Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company was no rookie on the field in the spring of 1888. Founded in 1873 by William Patrick Dougherty with the support of his younger brother, James, the company had systematically harvested almost all of the saleable timber along the western side of Los Gatos Creek in the 1870s, after which it did the same along the upper half of Zayante Creek. But a massive fire in August 1886 destroyed the lumber mill at Zayante and forced most of the residents of the mill town to flee to other areas in the San Lorenzo Valley. The Dougherty brothers replaced the burned husk with a large shingle mill later that year, but the remaining timber was insufficient to justify a resurrection of the once-impressive lumber mill.

In the several years prior to the fire, the company had begun buying tracts of timber along the San Lorenzo River north of the flume mill (later Cunningham Mill) in areas that the San Lorenzo Valley lumber flume did not or could not reach. With sufficient lumber providers located further south along the flume, there was no reason to harvest timber north of the flume mill, so thousands of old growth redwood forest sat idle, awaiting a change in the market. The disaster at the Zayante mill finally convinced the Doughertys to relocate to this untapped area.

Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company mill north of Boulder Creek, 1895. [San Lorenzo Valley Museum]
As December 1887 approached, company workers began grading a railroad bed between the the Felton & Pescadero Railroad yard at Boulder Creek and the proposed Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company mill site four miles to the north, just below a convenient bend in the river where a dam could easily and relatively naturally be installed to create a mill pond. Most of the initial machinery for the mill was composed of surviving parts of the Zayante mill, supplemented with the newer machinery bought in late 1886 to replaced the destroyed components. These parts arrived at the new mill in May 1888, after the railroad tracks to the site were completed. Cunningham & Company, which was a sometimes partner and other times rival of the Doughertys, provided the lumber used in erecting the mill. When the mill opened on June 1, 1888, it was capable of producing up to 60,000 board feet of lumber per day. Over 100 workers, mostly foreigners, lived and worked at the mill prompting the creation of the Dougherty School in 1889. But as so often happens with sawmills in the Santa Cruz Mountains, the Dougherty brothers' first mill north of Boulder Creak met a fiery end in September 1888, less than four months after opening.

1892 Sanborn Map of the Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company facilities north of Boulder Creek.
[UC Santa Cruz Digital Collections]
The brothers subcontracted their orders to Cunningham & Company, which reaped great profits during the following year, although this unexpected influx of money led to the company's overextension and collapse during the recession of the 1890s. Meanwhile, the Doughertys rebuilt. A new mill was operating by November but the mill did not return to full operation until the following spring. From 1889 to 1891—three seasons—the mill fulfilled its contracts and ran at capacity. And then, in October 1891, the mill burned down for a second time. By this point, Cunningham & Company had moved its operations to Santa Cruz so the Santa Clara Mill & Lumber Company simply purchased the recently-vacated mill of its rival and relocated it to the north. As the 1890s recession receded in the mid-1890s, the Doughertys began increasing productions and improving facilities, reaching a daily capacity of 50,000 board feet.

This third and final mill is well documented by two Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps. The main track of the Dougherty Extension Railroad, which originally terminated at the mill, eventually continued north on the east side of the main mill. Two spurs, however, broke off to terminate in front of the mill, while four tramways also ran from the mill in order to shuttle lumber onto stacks. A third spur crossed the San Lorenzo River to the west of the mill and wrapped around the entire facility, reuniting with the main track north of the mill. It was along a short branch of this spur that the Doughertys installed an engine house for their single locomotive, the former Santa Cruz & Felton locomotive popularly nicknamed the Dinky (originally the Felton). Photograph evidence also confirms that another spur broke off from the mainline north of the mill at terminated a short distance to the east behind the employee cook house. This may have been where the locomotive's water tower was installed.

1908 Sanborn Map showing the California Timber Company facilities north of Boulder Creek in their final years.
[UC Santa Cruz Digital Collections]
Doughertys, as the mill and surrounding settlement became known, reached its peak in the late 1890s, although William Dougherty never lived to see this having died in 1894. His brother, James, and Henry L. Middleton, a prominent lumber investor and Boulder Creek's de facto mayor, continued to direct the company in its final years. During this time, Doughertys became a popular tourist location, with picnickers visiting on weekends and camping in unharvested redwood groves or areas that were already in the process of recovery further to the south. As must inevitably happen, though, the timber tracts in the San Lorenzo Valley were nearly all harvested by the end of the century. In 1900, the Dougherty Extension Railroad was extended to its maximum length after which time operations shifted to harvesting a tract of timber near Waterman Gap. In 1902, company's final property along Bear Creek was cut, although it is unclear if the timber from this location was processed at Doughertys or in Boulder Creek. James Dougherty's death in July 1900 signalled the spiritual end of operations, even if they limped along for two more seasons.

In 1903, the Dougherty widows, Middleton, and Loma Prieta Lumber Company chief investor Timothy Hopkins consolidated most of the remaining lumber operations north of Boulder Creek into a new firm titled the California Timber Company. The company quickly packaged up most of the mill's machinery and hauled it far up Bear Creek to a tributary called Deer Creek, which they harvested for several more years. Meanwhile, the remains of Doughertys sat mostly vacant. Some former employees continued to live in their cottages while just to the north, plans were put in place to found a new subdivision named Driftwood, centered around James Dougherty's former home of the same name. The venture proved fleeting, though, and the most of the remaining residents moved elsewhere. The railroad tracks through the site continued to be used by workers at the Pescadero mill until the end of 1913, after which the school shut down and the track was pulled for scrap. Despite several attempts to start a subdivision there, none succeeded for over two decades.

Geo-Coordinates & Access Rights:
37.1714N, 122.1397W

The area of Doughertys eventually became the subdivision known as Riverside Grove, established in May 1935. It is accessible off of State Route 9 from Teilh Drive. The mill site itself is south of Riverside Grove, located at the end of Either Way off of Teilh. No signs of the mill or railroad track remains in the immediate vicinity due to subsequent residential developments. A reminder of logging days remains with "Lake Street" sitting along the former site of the log pond. Some property lines also still hint at the railroad's right-of-way, although the right-of-way is otherwise difficult to discern in this area.

Citations & Credits:
  • Hamman, Rick. California's Central Coast Railways. Second edition. Santa Cruz, CA: Otter B Books, 2002.
  • Robinson, Lisa A. Images of America: The San Lorenzo Valley. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Press, 2012.
  • Whaley, Derek R. Santa Cruz Trains: Railroads of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Santa Cruz, CA, 2015.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Freight Stops: Hihn Mill on Kings Creek

James King is not a person that comes up much when discussing Santa Cruz County history. Born in Missouri, King later established a small cattle ranch and homestead in a clearing two miles north of Boulder Creek at the confluence of a small meandering creek and the San Lorenzo River. King disappears from history soon after this, but he lives on through the creek named after him. By the mid-1880s, the area of Kings Creek was teeming with activity. Near the bottom of the creek, the flume had its primarily mill, which in later years became home to Cunningham & Company. Further up the creek, homesteads arose and various lumber firms cut timber well into the 1900s. But enough virgin redwood survived for the F. A. Hihn Company to make a profit.

F. A. Hihn Company crews posing for a photograph at the Kings Creek mill, 1908.
[Santa Cruz Museum of Art & History]
On April 18, 1906, the earth shook and operations at Hihn's mill at Laurel ground to a halt. Although the mill returned to operations shortly afterwards, damage to the railroad line ensured that only small amounts of lumber could be hauled out of the isolated valley at the top of Soquel Creek. Fortunately for the lumber industry, demand was now at a peak with half of San Francisco burned to the ground and thousands of buildings across the Bay Area in need of repair or rebuilding. Hihn began searching across Santa Cruz County for other available timber tracts to harvest and his eyes fell upon Kings Creek, where a settler named Newman owned a large unharvested parcel.

Primary Hihn mill on Kings Creek, 1908. [Santa Cruz Museum of Art & History]
In early 1907, F. A. Hihn Company crews began hauling equipment up to the junction of Kings Creek and Logan Creek, a small seasonal tributary. There crews erected a small 30,000 board feet capacity mill that utilized steam-powered saws, probably brought over from Laurel. Although most of the mill was constructed by March, poor weather and a recession delayed opening of the mill until September. There was also talk at this time of extending the Dougherty Extension Railroad up Kings Creek from the bottom of the valley, with plans to even extend the line to Los Gatos. These plans fell apart, though, and only a short spur at the bottom of Kings Creek, splitting off from the main track near the old Cunningham mill site, was ever installed to cater to the mill.

The tramways to the lumber stacks at the Kings Creek mill, 1908. [Santa Cruz Museum of Art & History]
In April 1908, full operations at the mill finally began with a crew of 45 men cutting trees and timber. Good financial and weather conditions allowed operations to continue until November of that year, with a total yield of three million board feet produced in just the first full year of operation. For the next two years, the mill continued to cut at capacity with all of the lumber shipped to the Santa Cruz Lumber Company yard at the Santa Cruz Union Depot. A corporate takeover in 1909 meant that the lumber, once cut, became the property of the Hihn-Hammond Company, but that barely impacted daily operations.

Two horse teams idling in the lumber yard at the Kings Creek mill, 1908. [Santa Cruz Museum of Art & History]
In November 1910, crews determined that there was insufficient timber for another season and the mill closed. The equipment was removed and returned to Laurel, which resumed its former status as the primary Hihn mill in the county for several more years. Southern Pacific once again returned to the idea of building a branch line between Boulder Creek and Los Gatos in 1912, but the idea never materialized. The spur track was probably removed soon afterwards. The area around the spur was developed into Wildwood No. 2 and Rices Junction, while the mill property itself returned to a state of nature.

Geo-Coordinates & Access Rights:
Approx. 37.1850N, 122.1228W

The site of the mill is now a private property located 2.5 miles up Kings Creek. Nothing visible remains of the mill, although ironically, a more modern railroad flatcar functions as a bridge over the creek today. Trespassing on the property is not advised.

Citations & Credits:

Friday, May 10, 2019

Picnic Stops: Wildwood

The lumber industry in the San Lorenzo Valley was on a sharp decline at the beginning of the 1910s, but local entrepreneurs and real estate investors saw potential in the vast tracts of second-growth redwood forest that was left behind. Property developers from all over the nation were drawn to the untapped acreage north of Boulder Creek in the hope that they would establish the valley's next large settlement or create a destination resort. This was certainly the case for the large clearing just north of the site of the old Cunningham & Company mill, which was dismantled in 1902.

Marketing postcard of Wildwood showing a group picnic, 1915. [Derek R. Whaley]
In 1909, the American Real Estate Company purchased the land from W. H. Booth with the aspirational intention of subdividing the 320 acres of land situated on the west bank of the San Lorenzo River into scores of small parcels upon which investors could build small vacation cottages. George H. Wiley was brought in to oversee property sales and immediately christened the subdivision Wildwood, establishing a camping area there to provide further encouragement to investors. Maps even today show the optimistic grid pattern planned for the area, with several roads mapped out between tiny lots that quickly climbed the hillside behind the Wildwood camp ground. By 1910, approximately fifty families had purchased property.

Wildwood Camp showing the boarding house at left, with camping tents, c. 1914. [Derek R. Whaley]
For the next four years, Wiley worked out an arrangement with the California Timber Company to use the Dougherty Extension Railroad to shuttle potential investors up to Wildwood from Boulder Creek. During these years, the former Santa Cruz & Felton Railroad locomotive known as the Dinky (originally the Felton) ran the excursion runs when they were requested. The California Timber Company continued to maintain the right-of-way, since they were still using it periodically, while the real estate firm was responsible for maintaining the rolling stock.

The Dinky making a promotional run along the Dougherty Extension Railroad, c. 1912.
[San Lorenzo Valley Museum]
Demand for property and, specifically, development of the area increased significantly in mid-1910 prompting the real estate firm to purchase additional property across the river, which they labelled Wildwood No. 2. Within the original site, a boarding house was erected which also acted as a small general store and real estate office. As many as six-car trains delivered potential residents to Wildwood on busy weekends days, with many visitors coming just for the scenery. Lots sold for around $125, while prebuilt homes ranged from $250-$600.

The promotional autobus on the Dougherty Extension Railroad at Wildwood, c. 1914. [Derek R. Whaley]
The autobus cruising along the Dougherty
Extension Railroad toward Wildwood,
c. 1913. [Rick Hamman]
By 1913, sales had stagnated and the firm rebranded itself as the Wildwood Development Company. At the same time, they redirected their marketing to wealthy Oakland residents, many of whom enjoyed vacationing in Santa Cruz County during the summer months. The aging Dinky was replaced at this time with a new electric autobus that ran along the rails. As a part of this conversion, and due to the fact that the California Timber Company had stopped using the tracks, the rail line was renamed the Wildwood, Boulder Creek & Northern Railroad.

From 1913-1915, potential customers, seasonal vacationers, and permanent residents rode up from Boulder Creek on the autobus but sales continued to stagnate. Promises to install an artificial lake in the river and other promises did not come to fruition. The remoteness of the location and the rapidly increasing use of the automobile, especially by the wealthier population, led to fewer people purchasing remote cottages in the forest. The railroad ceased to convey passengers in June 1915, after which potential customers were transported from Boulder Creek via wagons or buses.

Geo-Coordinates & Access Rights:
37.1523N, 122.1365W

Today, Wildwood remains a relatively small community located mostly off Pleasant Way. The small Wildwood No. 2 area is just across the river behind Garrahan Park, accessible via Sequoia Road. Garrahan Park itself, as well as the surrounding neighborhoods, are part of the separate Rices Junction subdivision. Although the area remains heavily parcelled on official maps, few homes actually occupy most of the lots and most of the roads were never built. Only the area beside the river was actually developed to any significant extent.

Citations & Credits:

Friday, May 3, 2019

Freight Stops: Cunningham Mill

At its junction with Kings Creek. the San Lorenzo River makes an unusual set of turns around a small square outcropping of rock, forming in the process a near-complete square. It is in the center of this square that the San Lorenzo Valley Flume & Lumber Company erected its primary mill in 1875. From this point, prefabricated pieces of v-flume were sent down the completed portion of the flume, at which end workers appended the new section. This continued throughout much of 1875 until the flume reached Felton over eight miles to the south. After this point, the mill became just one of several that shipped lumber down the flume during the twelve years of the flume's existence. Little about the mill is known from this time and only one deteriorated photograph of the mill survives.

With the arrival of the Felton & Pescadero Railroad to Boulder Creek in 1885, operations at the flume mill slowed and other nearby lumber ventures were incorporated or began increasing their output. James F. Cunningham was one such entrepreneur. Cunningham had made a name for himself in the San Lorenzo Valley as a businessman and financier, and he had his hands in many different cookie jars. In Felton, he began in 1871 as part owner of the town's general store before opening up his own rival store in 1873. At this time, he was also an investor and secretary of the San Lorenzo Valley Railroad Company, which collapsed in 1874. Once the flume opened in late 1875, Cunningham's store became as much a hardware and lumber shop as a general store and the mercantile venture made Cunningham a successful local magnate. He became a county supervisor in 1878, became Felton's postmaster, and took over management of the Big Tree House. In 1880, he became a state assemblyperson.

Cunningham's interest in the lumber industry began around 1882, when he opened a shingle mill in Felton. By 1884, he was shipping ten flatcars of shingles per day from the mill and had become the second largest producer of timber in the San Lorenzo Valley. It was for this reason that the South Pacific Coast Railroad hired his firm to harvest the timber near the Turkey Foot (Boulder Creek) in preparation for the new freight yard the company intended to build there. Cunningham relocated his mill to the floodplain and was granted land along the main road, upon which he built a general store and private home. Cunningham quickly joined forces with James Dougherty and Henry L. Middleton, owners of the Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company, and together they began to make plans for harvesting the lumber north of Boulder Creek.

Cunningham & Company crews with family members posing in front of the mill, c. 1890. James Cunningham with large white hat at right. [San Lorenzo Valley Museum]
As early as 1886, Cunningham took over operation of the flume mill and possibly the flume itself, which now terminated in the freight yard that was partially owned by Cunningham. In May 1888, the old mill was either replaced or heavily upgraded to produce 60,000 board feet of lumber per day. To support the mill, the river was dammed, thereby creating a mill pond. Forty people were employed at the mill during the summer months and for the first year of operation, crews worked around the clock to fulfil a contract for the Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company, which was recovering from a fire at its Zayante mill and delayed in relocating operations to a new site north of Cunningham's mill.

The Dougherty Extension Railroad was ostensibly built to support the Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company's mill, but delays meant that it was Cunningham that primarily benefited from it during its first year of operation. Spurs and sidings were installed within the mill property, while a small truss bridge over the millpond was located just to the north. Unfortunately for Cunningham, his location was not sustainable in the long term since the area had already been harvested heavily for a decade.

In 1889, Cunningham attempted to break into the Santa Cruz market, directly challenging the status quo maintained by the Loma Prieta Lumber Company and Grover & Company. As production at his mill declined and the rivalry downtown intensified, Cunningham found himself with few friends. Dougherty and Middleton deprived him of his Boulder Creek general store in 1891 and Cunningham took it as a sign and moved to San José. He sold his mill to the Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company late that year and the machinery was eventually moved up to Deer Creek, where a new mill was established in 1902. The mill pond was destroyed in 1904 to allow fish to properly migrate upstream. In 1894, Cunningham merged his company with Grover & Company, but mounting debts led him to sell the company to Grover outright in 1897. He left the area permanently afterwards and died in San José in 1907. Second-growth redwood trees quickly overtook the former mill site north of Boulder Creek and it remains a heavily-wooded area today.

Citations & Credits:
37.1519N, 122.1368W

The site of the Cunningham Mill is accessible from State Route 9 along Riverside Drive just south of Garrahan Park. The area is now a small housing subdivision and no remnants of the original railroad right-of-way or the former mill survive in this area, although reminders of it still appear on property surveys. Trespassing on the properties of local residents is not encouraged.

Citations & Credits:

Friday, April 26, 2019

Freight Stops: Morrell Mill on Two Bar Creek

Just over a mile north of Boulder Creek, an oddly-named tributary of the San Lorenzo River meanders through a wooded gulch down the western side of Mount Bielawski. The so-called Two Bar Creek has never been the most prominent or important stream in the area but it did host a single mill with a succession of owners.

Ephraim Bradbury Morrell—or just Brad—a native of Maine, began his career in Santa Cruz County not on Two Bar Creek but in Cleveland Gulch near the Glenwood-Laurel Tunnel in 1881. In May of that year, Morrell erected a sawmill with a capacity of 25,000 board feet of lumber per day. For three years, he shipped out lumber cut at this mill via the railroad station at Highland (later Laurel) via a hauling road that is now Morrell Mill Road.
Official Map of Santa Cruz County by W. S. Rodgers, 1889, showing the tracts harvested by Morrell and the McAbees.
[Library of Congress]
In April 1884, with little left to harvest along the headwaters of Soquel Creek, Morrell packed up his equipment and shipped it to Two Bar Creek to the property of E. P. Reed, who owned a 450-acre parcel through which the San Lorenzo Valley flume passed. Reed acted as site superintendent, as well. Morrell probably used Bear Creek Road to get his machinery to the site, since transporting it up the future State Route 9 would have been difficult and more roundabout. The new mill opened in May and likely harvested the timber on William Maitland's extensive property further up the creek, since Maitland worked at the mill in 1885. By 1886, the mill had a daily capacity of 12,000 board feet of lumber and employed twenty men. During this time, Morrell was under contract with the San Jose Mill & Lumber Company to deliver 3,000,000 feet of lumber annually, all of which was shipped by ox team over Bear Creek Road rather than flume, but a dispute arose over payment, ending the arrangement.

With the arrival of the Dougherty Extension Railroad in 1888, Morrell's mill switched to using the railroad to ship its goods. Indeed, around February, it became one of the first freight stops along the new line and a spur was soon installed to the mill. For several years, little is known about the mill, but the economic recession of the mid-1890s impacted operations there. In August 1896, the mill shut down. It would not reopen under Morrell's management. For the following two summers, it remained closed. Around 1899, the firm of Hubbard & Carmichael, which had harvested previously in the Ben Lomond area, was brought on to cut the remaining timber on Morrell's lands. They finished operations there in September 1900 and relocated to Oil Creek near the headwaters of Pescadero Creek. Morrell himself lived in Boulder Creek until his death at 68 on July 5, 1903.
The Morrell Mill on Two Bar Creek with railroad tracks in the foreground, c. 1904.
[UC Santa Cruz Special Collections]
In late 1900 or early 1901, either Morrell or Hubbard & Carmichael sold the former Reed property to two brothers, Orrin L. and Williard O. McAbee. The Sentinel reports in April 1901 that they struck a vein of coal on Twobar Creek, although this ultimately proved an unprofitable venture. The brothers were better associated with the area to the north of Big Basin, where they owned a large timber property above Pescadero Creek harvested by Homer M. Rider, a well-known Corralitos mill owner. Rider and the McAbee brothers went into partnership as McAbee Bros & Rider Company in May 1904 and purchased the old Morrell mill as well as the timber rights of William F. Horstman, who owned the last significant tract of old growth redwood along Two Bar Creek. Orrin was designated superintendent of this operation and, despite plans to relocate it further up the creek, the old mill remained at its former site beside the railroad tracks at the bottom of Two Bar Creek. For two years, the Horstman tract was cut and the felled timber hauled to the bottom of the gulch, where it was cut at the mill and then loaded onto railcars for shipment to Boulder Creek.

As the senior partners, the McAbee Brothers renamed their corporation McAbee Bros Timber Company in June 1904 and purchased timber rights to 320 acres of G. H. and Kate Harrington's land on the western side of Big Basin near China Grade. They also began plans to establish a subdivision named Sequoia upon the property. Early on, disaster struck and a fire in September burned much of their land and their sawmill. Meanwhile, operations continued on the Horstman lands along Two Bar Creek.

In November 1905, Rider sold his interest in the McAbee Bros Timber Company to the Henry Cowell Lime & Cement Company, which owned several tracts of timberland north of Boulder Creek. Preparations began immediately to remove the former Morrell mill from its location at the bottom of Two Bar Creek to a site at the headwaters of Boulder Creek to the west. This location was originally two properties: a homestead owned by J. W. Sylvester who sold it to Davis & Cowell; and a 160 acre tract originally owned by Samuel Grosh and purchased by Davis & Cowell around 1881. Together, they comprised around 800 acres of timberland. The mill was moved early in 1906, but additional parts needed to complete the complex were delayed due to the San Francisco Earthquake, which struck in April. Once operations finally began, the partners reincorporated as the Southern Lumber Company and purchased the Chase Lumber Company yard at the Santa Cruz Union Depot and a smaller yard alongside Boulder Creek in the town of Boulder Creek. In 1909, they further increased their local production capabilities by buying L. F. Pitt's shingle mill and box factory situated in the Boulder Creek freight yard. The improved mill, meanwhile, relocated to a location deeper within the timber tracts in April 1910. This marked the height of Southern Lumber operations in Santa Cruz County.

On February 2, 1918, the shingle mill and box factory burned down, and this likely marks the end of any significant presence in Boulder Creek or the San Lorenzo Valley. Southern Lumber had spread its wings throughout the 1910s and established a distribution yard in San José and other mills throughout the Central Coast. The McAbees themselves remained in town, however. Orrin died suddenly in 1925 from a drowning incident, while is brother passed away nine years later. They had relinquished control over their company in the years prior and moved on to other ventures. In April 1936, the company was taken over by Ed Pohle whose family has controlled the firm ever since.

Geo-Coordinates & Access Rights:
Approx. 37.1435N, 122.1323W

The location of the Morrell mill was probably at or near the current location of Lee & Associates Rescue Equipment at the end of Two Bar Road, between State Route 9 and the San Lorenzo River. The Dougherty Extension Railroad passed directly through this property, as did the flume before it. It is currently a private residence and trespassing is not encouraged.

Citations & Credits:

Friday, April 19, 2019

Freight Stops: Alameda Lumber Mill

North of the town of Boulder Creek, there are several tributaries of the San Lorenzo River that meander up either side of the valley's walls. Bear Creek, the second such stream, hosted several lumber mills along its length over the years, but the mill operated by the Alameda Lumber Company, owned by Austin S. and Oscar R. Harmon, was the longest-lived and most well known. The brothers were natives of Maine but moved to the San Lorenzo Valley in 1867 to work at Joseph W. Peery's mill on Two Bar Creek. After that mill closed, they tried some other professions before returning to the lumber industry.

In 1873, the brothers founded the Bear Creek Toll Road Company and spent two years creating a road between the small town of Lorenzo and Lexington south of Los Gatos. The goal of the project was to make it easier for lumber and split stuff to be hauled out of the upper San Lorenzo Valley to the Santa Clara Valley. Unfortunately for the Harmons, though, soon after the road was built, the San Lorenzo Valley Flume was completed, creating a more efficient and easier way to ship out lumber. Santa Cruz County eventually purchased the failed toll road in 1890 and it became Bear Creek Road.

Excerpt of the Official Map of Santa Cruz County, 1889, showing the location of the Harmon Brothers' timber tract along Harmon Gulch (top right) in relation to Boulder Creek (bottom left). [Library of Congress]
Once the flume was built and the unprofitability of the toll road proven, the Harmons decided to return to the lumber business. In 1876, the brothers incorporated the Alameda Lumber Company and began purchasing timberland north of Boulder Creek. They purchased several tracks on either side of the San Lorenzo River about a quarter mile north of town, but their main tract was up a seasonal tributary of Bear Creek now called Harmon Gulch. Like many other lumber firms in the area, the Harmons harvested lumber on their own lands as well as on adjacent lands through lease agreements.

For its first few years, the Harmon Gulch mill was a relatively small-scale affair that focused primarily on cutting railroad crossties. All of the cut timber was hauled to the small mill via oxen teams that dragged the cut logs down skid roads to the mill near the gulch's base. From there, they likely shipped the ties over their toll road to Lexington and beyond. In 1880, the brothers gave up completely on their road and began sawing lumber to send downstream along the flume at the bottom of Bear Creek.

The arrival of the Dougherty Extension Railroad in August 1887 replaced the increasing problems with the flume and provided the Harmons with a truly profitable way to ship their lumber. While no railroad tracks ever came near the mill, a spur at the bottom of Bear Creek was probably installed for the mill's use. By 1889, the mill had a daily capacity of 10,000 board feet of lumber and employed 45 men.

A series of tragedies led to an eventual end to the Harmon Brothers' venture up Harmon Gulch. In 1887, Austin Harmon died from a head wound received in the field. Three years later, the mill burned down, although Oscar Harmon rebuilt. At the end of the 1898 cutting season, Oscar retired and sold the land to J. H. Olsen, who sold the property to the Santa Clara Valley Mill & Lumber Company two years later. Oscar, meanwhile, died in 1899. The remaining timber was harvested throughout 1901 and then the mill was sold to the Enterprise Lumber & Development Company, which ended up abandoning the structures and machinery the next year.

Geo-Coordinates & Access Rights:
Approximately 37.1437N, 122.0897W

The site of the mill still hosted machinery into the 1920s, at which time it disappeared and was developed into a private residence. Its location was probably in the vicinity of Fernwood Drive across from Harmon Gulch Road approximately 2.5 miles up Bear Creek Road.

Citations & Credits:

Friday, April 12, 2019

Maps: Ben Lomond to Boulder Creek

The gentle curves and relatively unimpeded journey between Felton and Ben Lomond ended just north of the latter town. As the Felton & Pescadero Railroad carved its grade north to Boulder Creek, the route proved much more perilous and required several crossings. But there were several stops and stations, almost all registered on Southern Pacific Railroad timetables and station books, and it was also quite possibly the most scenic sections of track in Santa Cruz County.

The first bridge over the San Lorenzo River north of Ben Lomond, c. 1910. [George Pepper]
Leaving Ben Lomond, the right-of-way curved behind the current Tyrolean Inn to cross the San Lorenzo River on a mixed trestle-truss bridge. From there, it passed through a large open meadow that would host a number of campgrounds over the years, most notably Camp Thunder, before it was converted into a housing subdivision. Riverside Drive north of Ben Lomond marks the right-of-way in this section and can be easily visited today, although no railroad relics remain beside the road.

Railroad route between Ben Lomond and Boulder Creek, 1885-1934. Structures and spur lengths not to scale.
[Derek R. Whaley]
View from the top of a railroad bridge showing the swimming hole north of Siesta, c. 1915. [Derek R. Whaley]
From this meadow, the railroad tracks crossed the San Lorenzo River over one of the most spectacular bridges in the county, after which it ran along the southern side of River Road in a steep cut between the road and the river. Here, the railroad passed its first stop along this stretch: Phillipshurst, established to cater to Dr. Phillips who lived just across the river. Phillips's estate would later become the Blake-Hammond Manor and can still be sighted, with some difficulty, from State Route 9. Unfortunately, the right-of-way in this section is accessible only via River Road, which is privately-owned and maintained so trespassing is not advised. Just before crossing the San Lorenzo River an open deck bridge, the railroad passed the summer cottage of Fred Swanton, who convinced Southern Pacific to set up a stop named Siesta. This stop is also on private land near the southern end of Redwood Street off Riverside Road in Brookdale.

The Fish Hatchery at Brookdale, c. 1920. [Craig Polson]
On the other side of the river, after crossing Larkspur Street, the right-of-way passed the Brookdale Fish Hatchery, established by Judge John H. Logan and run by the California Department of Fish & Game. Either because of freight needs or due to its popularity as a tourist destination, the railroad established a stop here named Fish Hatchery, probably along Old River Lane. The tracks continued to hug the west bank of the San Lorenzo River as it rounded to the west toward Clear Creek, which a short open deck bridge crossed just before reaching Brookdale. None of the right-of-way in this area is really accessible and all of it sits on private property.

Brookdale Station with a train approaching, c. 1920. [Craig Polson]
Brookdale is the first station site along this stretch that can still be viewed, although it still sits on private property. The station was located at the bottom of Pacific Street just before the road crosses over to Huckleberry Island. The old post office on the west side of the street still sits as a private residence, but the station itself has been demolished. The large property situated here provided space for the spur and, later, siding that catered to the station, and also allowed room for the fill that preceded the bridge over the river to the west. The railroad tracks once crossed the San Lorenzo River here, and sawed-off pilings of it can still be seen on either side of the river. The tracks then passed through a shallow cut at the back of Huckleberry Island before crossing the river a second time on the other side. While the bridge to the south of the island was composed entirely of wood, the bridge to the north included concrete piers, which are still present today, although it is impossible to see them since the adjacent properties block line-of-sight. Huckleberry Island may well have served as the railroad's only unofficial picnic stop along the Boulder Creek Branch, but evidence is scarce.

Passenger train in the Boulder Creek yard, c. 1890s. [Margaret Koch]
From Irwin Way, the railroad crossed the river a sixth time and the concrete piers for this can be seen just to the north from the vehicular bridge over the river. The right-of-way then turned sharply to the west to parallel the river for a short distance, eventually passing into a shallow cut on its way to the Boulder Mill. In later years, the Boulder Mill was renamed Harris, although this stop catered to Camp Joy. All of the right-of-way in this section is on private property and a gate blocks access after a short distance down Irwin Way, although the gated road once served as the railroad right-of-way. Just past Harris, the tracks crossed the river for a seventh and final time, also crossing Malosky Creek in the process. The right-of-way then straightened out on its approach to Filbert, near the end of Grove Street. Little evidence remains of the railroad in this section except the single concrete pier and some overgrown sawed-off pilings beside the river. However, Redwood Resort lingers on as the successor to the Redwood Rest Resort, which probably was the chief patron of Filbert station in later years since the stop was directly behind the resort.

Central Avenue in Boulder Creek, 1900. [Kilroy Was Here]
Creeping through the back yards of Boulder Creek homes and businesses on a narrow shelf just above the west bank of the river, the Boulder Creek Branch finally broke out into its large freight yard at the place where East Lomond Street turns to the north. From here, tracks split apart in several different directions, with some staying close to the river and others running just behind the businesses on Central Avenue. One track even wrapped up Lorenzo Street to access the Southern Lumber Company yard that was once located where the post office and Liberty Bank is today. The station itself was located just behind the Boulder Creek Fire Department, roughly where the Boulder Creek Recreation building sits at the corner of Middleton Avenue and Railroad Avenue. Except for names—Railroad Avenue, Junction Avenue, Junction Park, Middleton Avenue—nothing from the railroading days survives in the massive open meadow that once was home to the freight yard. But the train did continue on to the north, following Junction Avenue across Boulder Creek, the San Lorenzo River, and then Bear Creek—but that's a story for a different time.

Citations & Credits: